GLOSSARY OF TERMS
3E: three elements: platinum, palladium and gold.
4E: four elements. The grade at Anglo American Platinum Limited mines is measured as the combined content of the four most valuable precious metals: platinum, palladium, rhodium and gold.
ABET: adult basic education and training.
ACP: Amplats Converting Process, a pyrometallurgical process used at the Waterval Smelter complex in Rustenburg.
Adverse groundwater impacts on humans: evidence of adverse impacts on human health or activities as a result of discharge to groundwater.
Adverse surface water impacts on humans: evidence of adverse impacts on human health or activities as a result of discharge to surface water.
AEW: The Anglo Environment Way.
AFRS: Anglo fatal risks standards.
Anglo American 5 × 5 risk matrix: a risk matrix characterised by a five-category scale for (a) likelihood and (b) consequence.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute.
ARM: African Rainbow Minerals Limited.
ART: antiretroviral therapy, used to mitigate the effects of AIDS.
Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles.
Aspect: element of an organisation’s activities, products or services that can interact with the environment.
Autocatalyst: a cylinder made from ceramic or metal and formed into a honeycomb. It is coated with a solution of chemicals and platinum group metals, and is mounted inside a stainless steel canister and installed in the exhaust line of vehicles between the engine and the silencer. Autocatalysts convert over 90% of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen from gasoline engines into less harmful carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapour. They also reduce the pollutants in diesel exhaust by converting 90% of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and 30% to 40% of particulate, into carbon dioxide and water vapour.
Basel Convention: the Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was drafted and adopted in 1989
and came into effect in 1992. The convention works to reduce the movement of hazardous wastes, to ensure that wastes are disposed of as close as possible to where they were produced, and also to minimise the generation of hazardous wastes in terms of their quantity and level of hazard.
Base metal: a common metal that is not considered precious, e.g. copper, tin or zinc.
BAU: business as usual.
BBBEE: broad-based black economic empowerment. This represents a broadening of earlier BEE (see below) policy and attempts to spread the benefits of economic empowerment to the widest-possible spectrum of black South Africans.
BEE: black economic empowerment. BEE is a policy of the South African Government, aimed at increasing the access that black South Africans have to productive assets. It seeks to “promote new opportunities for and increase the levels of participation of black people in the ownership, management and control of economic activities”.
Bokoni Platinum Mine: joint-venture mine.
BRPM: Bafokeng-Rasimone Platinum Mine.
BSI: British Standards.
CED: Community Engagement Department.
CEMSS: central electricity management support system.
CEO: chief executive officer.
CO: carbon monoxide.
CO2: carbon dioxide.
Concentrating: the process of separating milled ore into a waste stream (tailings) and a valuable mineral stream (concentrate) by flotation. The valuable minerals in the concentrate contain almost all the minerals found in base and precious metals. They are treated further by smelting and refining to obtain pure metals: Au, Cu, PGMs and Ni (see entries above and below for these metals).
COP17: 17th Conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Durban from 28 November to 9 December 2011.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): a comprehensive set of nutrient reference values for healthy populations, which can be used for assessing and planning diets. Published since 1997, the DRIs are established by Canadian and American scientists through a review process overseen by the U.S. National Academies, a respected and independent non-governmental entity. They reflect the current state of scientific knowledge with respect to human nutrient requirements.
Discretionary spend: spending for the long-term profitability of a company.
DMR: Department of Mineral Resources.
DSM: demand-side management.
DWA: Department of Water Affairs.
EAP: economically active population.
Effluent to surface water: total volume of excess water discharged to surface water (e.g. rivers, dams, pans) during the reporting period.
EIA: environmental impact assessment.
EMP: environmental management plan.
EMS: environmental management system.
Energy from electricity: electricity purchased from the national utility, Eskom.
Energy from processes and fossil fuels consumed: total energy excluding electricity purchased.
Equivalent refined platinum: mine production and purchases of metal in concentrate converted to equivalent refined platinum production using Amplats’ standard smelting and refining recoveries.
ERRA: employee relationship recognition agreement.
ESOP: Amplats’ share-ownership plan.
Exco: the Executive Committee.
FIFR: fatal-injury-frequency rate: the number of fatal injuries per 200,000 hours worked.
Flotation: in the flotation process, milled ore is mixed with water to form pulp, which is passed through a series of agitating tanks. Various chemicals are added to the pulp in a sequence that renders the valuable minerals hydrophobic (water-repellent) and the non-valuable minerals hydrophilic (possessing a strong affinity for water). Air is dispersed through the tanks and rises to the surface. The hydrophobic particles attach themselves to the rising air bubbles and are removed from the main volume of pulp as a soapy froth. In this manner, various combinations of flotation cells in series are utilised to produce a concentrated stream of valuable mineral particles, called the “concentrate”, and a waste pulp stream, called “tailings”.
FOG: fall of ground.
FOGM: fall-of-ground management.
Fuels: diesel, petrol and paraffin consumed for processes and utilities.
Fundamental human rights conventions of the International Labour Organization: international labour standards covered in the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 86th session, Geneva, 1998):
Convention No 29: Forced Labour, 1930
Convention No 87: Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise, 1948
Convention No 98: Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining, 1949
Convention No 100: Equal Remuneration, 1951
Convention No 105: Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957
Convention No 111: Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), 1958
Convention No 138: Minimum Age, 1973
Convention No 182: Worst Forms of Child Labour, 2000
Furnace matte: the product of the smelting process.
GHG: greenhouse gas.
GJ: gigajoules(109 joules).
Global compact: the United Nations Global Compact is a “strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption”.
Grade: the mass of desired metal(s) in a given mass of ore. Ores bearing PGMs are normally low-grade. Grades are usually expressed as grams per tonne, equivalent to parts per million.
Grease: total quantity of all types of grease used in all types of equipment during the reporting period.
Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 equivalent: quantity of CO2 from electricity purchased and internally generated. Conversion factors used are as recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Gases include CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, and other CO2 equivalents.
Grey water: poor-quality water obtained from an external source, e.g. municipal sewage effluent. Does not include non-potable water, or internally recycled effluent.
GRI: the Global Reporting Initiative. It was established in 1997, with the mission of designing globally applicable guidelines for the preparation of enterprise-level sustainable development reports.
Groundwater quality deterioration: monitoring results indicate deterioration of groundwater quality because of an operation’s activities.
Groundwater quality monitoring: programme to monitor water quality. Sites required to be monitored are those identified by legal permit requirements or by the site environmental management system.
Groundwater used: water abstracted/collected by the operation from groundwater sources, e.g. from boreholes and mine dewatering, which is used by the operation.
g/t: grams per tonne, the unit of measurement of grade. One gram per tonne is one part per million.
Hazardous waste to incineration: may include sludge contaminated by heavy metals; contaminated containers (reagent containers, oil/grease containers, anti-freeze drums); medical waste; vehicle batteries; and oil-contaminated material (gaskets, filters, soaking agents, rags). Incineration takes place in a facility designed and operated in a manner compliant with legislation or internationally accepted practice (this does not include the burning of waste in a pit or open area).
Hazardous waste to landfill: may include sludge contaminated by heavy metal; contaminated containers (reagent containers, oil/grease containers, anti-freeze drums); contaminated soil; and oil-contaminated material (gaskets, filters, soaking agents, rags).
HDSA: historically disadvantaged South African. Refers to “any person, category of persons or community, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination before the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 (Act No 200 of 1993), came into operation”. The Company definition of HDSAs includes employees who are classified as African, Asian, coloured or women, regardless of citizenship status.
Head grade: the grade of the ore leaving a mine and entering a processing plant.
HIV/AIDS: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune
HMO: health maintenance organisation.
ICMM: International Council on Mining and Metals.
IDC: individual development charter.
IDPs: integrated development plans, as specified in the mining scorecard in respect of mine community and rural development, and legislated by Government in terms of the Local Government Municipal Systems Act.
IFRS: International Financial Reporting Standards.
IIED: International Institute for Environment and Development.
ILO (International Labour Organization): the specialised UN agency that seeks to promote social justice and internationally recognised human and labour rights. It was founded in 1919.
IPA: International Platinum Association, which provides a communication forum for producers and fabricators, and facilitates market development.
IPP: independent power producer.
IRM: integrated risk management.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization.
ISO 1400: an EMS standard published by the ISO. See EMS above.
IUCN protected area categories: the World Conservation Union (IUCN) defines a protected area as “an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of the natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means”. IUCN categorises protected areas by management objective and has identified six distinct categories of protected areas.
JM: Johnson Matthey plc, a leading fabricator of PGM products and leading researcher and developer of PGM applications and uses, based in London.
JSE: JSE Limited, the Johannesburg-based securities exchange.
JV: joint venture. A contractual agreement between two or more parties for the purpose of executing a business undertaking. The parties agree to share in the profits and losses of the enterprise.
King Report: the King Committee on Corporate Governance in South Africa was formed in 1992 (under the auspices of the Institute of Directors in southern Africa and with Mervyn King as chair) to promote the highest standards of corporate governance in South Africa. Corporate governance in the country was institutionalised by the publication of the King Report on Corporate Governance in 1994, by the release of an updated version (King II) in 2002 and, more recently, by the release of King III in September 2009. The King Report features a Code of Corporate Practices and Conduct, which the JSE stipulates all listed companies must follow. The Global Reporting Initiative (see entry above) is referenced in this code.
kt: thousand tonnes.
ktpm: thousand tonnes per month.
Land disturbed for mineral extraction activities: area of land under Group charge where the original characteristics have been disturbed by mineral extraction and ancillary operations. This includes open pits and quarries, access roads, stockpiles, tailings/slimes dams and co-disposal facilities, offices, dumps, villages, land awaiting rehabilitation, screening banks, and concentrator, smelter, and refinery complexes. Disturbance can be through both physical and chemical means.
Land under Group charge: includes land falling under the direct management of the Group (including all land owned, leased or covered by surface rights), but excludes land that does not fall under the direct management of the Group. It also excludes prospecting rights.
Level 1 incident: an unplanned or unwanted event that results in minor impact, defined as: lasting for a week or less; and/or affecting a small area (measured in metres); and/or impacting a receiving environment that is highly altered with no sensitive habitats; and/or occurring in an area with no biodiversity value (urban/industrial area). All Level 1 incidents should be classified and investigated to the appropriate level of detail to determine the root cause of the event and to prevent a repeat occurrence. They do not have to be reported to the authorities. Repeat or continuous Level 1 incidents must be escalated to Level 2 if the impact is not mitigated within the scheduled period of time appropriate to the severity of the impact.
Level 2 incident: an unplanned or unwanted event that results in low impact, defined as: lasting for weeks; and/or affecting a limited area (measured in hundreds of metres); and/or impacting a receiving environment that is altered with little natural habitat; and/or occurring in an area with low biodiversity value. All Level 2 incidents should be classified and investigated to the appropriate level of detail to determine the root cause of the event and to prevent a repeat occurrence. They do not have to be reported to the authorities. However, repeat or continuous Level 2 incidents must be escalated to Level 3 if the impact is not mitigated within the scheduled period of time appropriate to the severity of the impact.
Level 3 incident: an unplanned or unwanted event that results in medium impact, defined as: lasting for months; and/or affecting an extended area (measured in kilometres); and/or impacting a receiving environment that comprises largely natural habitat; and/or occurring in an area with moderate biodiversity value (determined using the Anglo American “Guideline for preparing biodiversity action plans”). All estimated Level 3 incidents should be classified and internally investigated to the appropriate level of detail to determine the root cause of the event and to prevent a repeat occurrence. Repeat or continuous Level 3 incidents must be escalated to Level 4 if the impact is not mitigated within the scheduled period of time appropriate to the severity of the impact. A Level 3 incident triggers specific reporting and investigative procedures. It is reported to senior Amplats management and to the authorities in terms of the National Water Act and the National Environmental Management Act.
Level 4 incident: is termed a “significant incident” and refers to an unplanned or unwanted event that results in high impact, defined as: lasting for years; and/or affecting the catchment on a sub-basin scale; and/or impacting a receiving environment that has sensitive natural habitat; and/or occurring in an area with high biodiversity value (determined using the Anglo American “Guideline for preparing biodiversity action plans”). All estimated Level 4 incidents will trigger a formal independent investigation as covered in Anglo American plc’s “Procedure for incident reporting and investigation” and will be subject to specific reporting and investigative protocols. Reporting to the authorities is done in terms of the National Water Act and the National Environmental Management Act.
Level 5 incident: is termed a “significant incident” and refers to an unplanned or unwanted event that results in major impact, defined as: having a permanent impact on the environment; and/or affecting a catchment area on a whole-basin scale; and/or impacting a receiving environment classified as having highly sensitive natural habitat; and/or occurring in an area with very high biodiversity value (determined using the Anglo American “Guideline for preparing biodiversity action plans”). All estimated Level 5 incidents will trigger a formal independent investigation as covered in Anglo American plc’s “Procedure for incident reporting and investigation” and will be subject to the same reporting and investigation protocols. Reporting to the authorities is done in terms of the National Water Act and the National Environmental Management Act.
Lost-time injuries (LTIs): any occupational injury that renders a person unable to perform his/her regular duties for one full shift or more following the day on which the injury was sustained, whether a scheduled work day or not.
LPG: liquefied petroleum gas.
LTIFR: lost-time injury-frequency rate; the number of lost-time injuries per 200,000 hours worked.
Lubricating oil and hydraulic oil used: total quantity of all types of lubricating oil and hydraulic oil added to all types of equipment.
MCP: magnetic concentration plant.
Merensky Reef: a layer in the Bushveld sequence.
Milling: the process of reducing broken ore to a size at which it can be concentrated.
Mineral Resources: See Integrated Annual Report.
Mining area: the area for which a mining authorisation/right has been granted.
Mining Charter: the promulgation of the Mining Charter in 2004 was intended to bring the mining industry in line with South Africa’s overall social and economic transformation. The charter went through a revision in 2010. It re-emphasised that 26% of South Africa’s mining assets would have to be BEE (see above) compliant by 2014; provided for the complete elimination of hostel accommodation on the mines; and introduced a sustainable element, on the understanding that mines’ social licence to operate would be linked to their environmental, health and safety performance. It also made provision for penalties for non-compliance. The Codes of Good Practice and The Housing and Living Conditions Standard for the South African Minerals Industry were gazetted in 2009.
Ml: million litres.
Moz: million ounces.
MQA: Mining Qualifications Authority. The MQA is a body of the South African Government, charged with developing standards and qualifications for the country’s mining sector; maintaining the quality of standards, qualifications and learning provision; developing and implementing a sector skills plan; disbursing grants from the Skills Development Levy; and establishing, registering, administering and promoting learnerships and the administration of apprenticeships.
Mt: million tonnes.
NEMA: National Environmental Management Act.
NGO: non-governmental organisation.
NIHL: noise-induced hearing loss.
Non-hazardous waste to incineration: the disposal of waste by incineration, in a facility designed and operated in a manner compliant with legislation or internationally accepted practice (this does not include the burning of waste in a pit or open area).
Non-hazardous waste to landfill: the disposal of domestic-type waste at on-mine and off-mine landfill sites.
Non-potable water from an external source: water obtained from an external source that is untreated or only partially treated and is not of a standard suitable for drinking. This does not include waste water/second-class water, which is effluent from sewage works. It also does not include untreated surface water and groundwater extracted by the operation itself.
NOx emissions: emissions of nitrogen oxides from diesel engines.
NWA: National Water Act.
OHSAS 18000: an international system specification for the management of occupational health and safety. It comprises two parts, 18001 and 18002, and embraces a number of other publications.
OHSAS 18001: Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (providing specifications for occupational-health and safety-management systems).
Opsco: Amplats’ Operations Committee.
Ore: rock from which metal or minerals can be extracted at a financial profit.
Oz: troy ounce.
Ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs): quantity of ozone-depleting compounds released/vented to the atmosphere during the reporting period, expressed as CFC-11 equivalent. ODCs include the following compounds: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs); halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402); carbon tetrachloride; trichloroethane; methyl bromide; and hydrobromofluorocarbons.
Particulates: particulate matter consists of airborne particles in solid or liquid form. Particles are a type of air pollution that commonly affects people’s health. “Big” particles are between 2.5 and 10 micrometres in size and are called PM10.”Small” particles are under 2.5 micrometres in size and are called PM2.5. They cause more severe health effects. Amplats data on particulates refer to the mass of particulates released to atmosphere from point sources during the reporting period.
PCBs: polychlorinated biphenyls, which are mixtures of chlorinated compounds.
PGI: Platinum Guild International, based in London. It is the key promoter of platinum jewellery throughout the world.
PGMs: platinum group metals. Six elemental metals of the platinum group, nearly always found in association with one another. Some texts refer to PGEs (platinum group elements). The metals are platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium.
PJ: petajoules (1015 joules).
Platinosis: an allergy-like reaction to exposure to soluble salts of platinum.
Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust.
POPs: persistent organic pollutants. These are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms, and are toxic to humans and wildlife. POPs circulate globally and can cause damage wherever they travel.
Potable water from an external source: water obtained from an external source (e.g. a local authority) that has been treated to a standard suitable for drinking.
Precious metals: all PGMs and gold. See above for definition of PGMs.
Primary activities: those activities in which the operation engages to produce its product(s), including dust suppression within the operational area.
PTA: purified terephthalic acid.
Pt oz: equivalent refined platinum ounce(s). Equivalent ounces are mined ounces expressed as refined ounces.
PwC: PricewaterhouseCoopers, who administer the external panel that reviews Amplats’ annual Sustainable Development Report prior to its publication.
R&D: research and development.
Ramsar Wetland: an area designated as a wetland of international importance because of its role in preserving biological diversity, or because it is a representative, rare or unique type of wetland.
RBMR: Rustenburg Base Metal Refiners.
RBR: Royal Bafokeng Resources.
REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical Substances. It is a European Community regulation.
ROD: record of decision.
RPM: Rustenburg Platinum Mines.
RPMR: Rustenburg Precious Metal Refiners.
S&SD Committee: Amplats’ Safety & Sustainable Development Committee.
SANS: South African National Standards.
SD: sustainable development.
SDD: safety and sustainable development.
SEAT: Anglo American Socio-Economic Assessment Toolkit.
Section 54 stoppage: issued when a mining inspector orders a work stoppage after a death or other accident at a mine. Such stoppages are legislated by section 54 of the Mine Health and Safety Act.
SED: socio-economic development.
SHE: Safety, Health and Environment.
SMMEs: small, medium and micro enterprises.
SO2 from processes: mass of sulfur dioxide released to atmosphere, from point sources and fugitive emissions, during the reporting period.
- Minor social incident: an incident related to Anglo American (Anglo) that results or could result in a stakeholder complaint that is isolated within an annual reporting period; and/or produces significant negative publicity that is local or regional in nature; and/or results in a breach of Anglo policies or standards that is short-term in nature and is quickly reversible (in under one month) with or without significant intervention; and/or involves no injury to or health impacts on any member of the public.
- Moderate social incident: an incident related to Anglo American (Anglo) that results in multiple stakeholder complaints that are widespread or repeated within an annual reporting period; and/or produces significant negative publicity that is national in nature; and/or results in a breach of Anglo policies or standards that has medium- to long-term impacts (longer than a month) and is reversible with or without significant intervention; and/or results in actions by stakeholders or employees/contractors that break the law or lead to a serious disturbance requiring the attention of private or public security forces; and/or involves minor or moderate injuries to or health impacts on members of the public as a result of operational, security or other actions by Anglo staff or contractors, or as a result of actions by state security forces during an incident related to Anglo specifically and/or involves fatalities or one or more injuries (of any severity) to members of the public as the result of operational, security or other actions by Anglo staff or contractors, or as the result of actions by state security forces during an incident that could be perceived to be related to Anglo.
- Serious social incident: an incident related to Anglo American (Anglo) that produces significant negative publicity that is international in nature; and/or results in a breach of Anglo policies or standards that is non-reversible; and/or involves fatalities or one or more serious injuries to members of the public as the result of operational, security or other actions by Anglo staff or contractors, or as the result of actions by state security forces during an incident related to Anglo specifically.
Stockholm Convention: a global treaty to protect human health and the environment against persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In implementing the convention, governments take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. See above for definition of POPS.
Surface-water quality deterioration: monitoring results indicate a deterioration of surface-water quality off-site, because of the operation’s activities, during the reporting period.
Surface-water quality monitored: a surface-water quality-monitoring programme to monitor water quality at all the required monitoring sites. Required sites are those identified for monitoring by legal permit requirements or by the site EMS. See above for definition of EMS.
Surface water used: water abstracted/collected by the operation itself from surface-water sources, e.g. from rivers, dams and pans, and which is used by the operation, but excludes water recycled internally from stormwater and tailings return-water dams.
Tailings: that portion of the ore from which most of the valuable material has been removed by concentrating, and which is therefore low in value and rejected.
Tonne: unless otherwise defined, this refers to a metric tonne (1,000 kg).
Total energy used: energy from electricity purchased, plus energy from fossil fuels consumed.
tpm: tonnes per month.
TRCFR: total recordable case-frequency rate. This represents the total of all fatalities, serious injuries, and lost-time, medical-treatment and first-aid cases during the year.
TSF: tailings storage facility.
UG2 Reef: a chromite layer in the Bushveld sequence.
UNEP-WCMC: the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme.
Unprotected strike: The partial or complete concerted refusal to work, or the retardation or obstruction of work, by persons who are or have been employed by the same employer or by different employers, for the purpose of remedying a grievance or resolving a dispute in respect of any matter of mutual interest between employer and employee, and every reference to “work” in this definition includes overtime work, whether it is voluntary or compulsory.
VCT: voluntary counselling and testing.
VSP: voluntary severance package.
Water used for primary activities: total new or make-up water entering the operation and used for the operation’s primary activities. This definition includes mine dewatering water used for primary activities, but excludes internally recycled water and mine dewatering water discharged to surface and not used for any primary activities. (It may be discharged or evaporated, but these are not primary activities.)
WBCSD: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
WHO: World Health Organisation.
WLPF: Western Limb Producers’ Forum.
WULA: water-use licence application.
ZAR: South African rand.